The Letter from Paul the Apostle to the Romans


Paul, servant of Jesus Christ, called to apostleship, set aside in the gospel of God 2 which he has forepromised by his prophets in the holy scriptures 3 of his son, who was begotten from the seed of David according to the flesh, 4 who was declared the son of God with power according to the sanctifying spirit from the one who rose from death, Jesus Christ our Lord, 5 by whom we receive grace and apostleship, that the faith may be obeyed among all nations upon his name, 6 of which number you also have been called of Jesus Christ— 7 to all of you in Rome who are beloved of God and called to be holy: Grace to you and peace from God our father, and the Lord Jesus Christ. 8 First of all, I give thanks to my God by Jesus Christ about all things; for your faith is proclaimed in the whole world. 9 For God is my witness, whom I serve with my spirit in the gospel of his son, that without pause I make mention of you always in my prayers, 10 requesting if somehow eventually I may have a prosperous journey, God willing, that I may come to you. 11 For I desire to see you, that I may impart to you a spiritual gift, that you may be confirmed, 12 that is, that I may receive common consolation in you, by the mutual faith of you as well as me. 13 I do not want you unknowing, brothers, that often I have determined to come to you—but have been withstood until this day—that I might have some fruit also among you as well, as also among the rest of the nations. 14 To Greeks and non-Greeks alike, to the learned as well as the unlearned, I am a debtor; 15 so as much as is in me, I am ready to evangelize you as well, who are of Rome.

16 For the gospel of Christ does not ashame me. Rather, it is the power of God, to the salvation of all believers, Jew first but also Greek. 17 For the righteousness of God is revealed in it from faith to faith, as it is written, And the one righteous from faith shall live.

18 May God’s fury be revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of mankind who hold the truth of God in unrighteousness, 19 because that which can be known of God is shown in them. For God has revealed it to them. 20 For those things of his which are invisible from the creation of the world are clearly scene, as well as his power and godness, such that they are inexcusable. 21 Because despite knowing God, they did not give him the glory due to God, nor give him thanks, but were frustrated by their thoughts, and their unknowing heart was darkened. 22 Thinking themselves knowledgeable they became fools, 23 and mutated the immortal glory of God by an image, not only in the likeness of mortal man but also of flying things, creatures that walk on all fours, reptiles.

24 Therefore God handed them over through the greeds of their hearts, in uncleanness, that they might effect ignominy in their bodies among themselves, 25 who perverted the truth of God into a lie, worshiping and venerating those things which were created above the one who created them, may he be praised into the age, Amen. 26 Therefore God handed them over into ignominious lusts; for they even perverted the natural use of women into that which is against nature. 27 Likewise also the men, leaving behind the natural use of women, burned in their appetites one for another, joining up with other men, and receiving the reward of their errors in themselves, as necessary. 28 And such as they did not try to know God, so God handed them over to a reprobate mind, to do those things which were not convenient, 29 full of every manner of iniquity, unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness, greed, malice, full of envy, murder, contention, deceit, ill will; murmurers, 30 backstabbers, haters of God, spiteful, proud, boasters, thinkers of evil thoughts, disobedient to parents, 31 lacking in wisdom, breakers of pacts, strangers to love, faithless, merciless; 32 which when they knew the righteousness of God, and that such things as they were doing were worthy of death, not only did them, but even assented to others who did them.


Which is why you have no excuse, mister, whoever you are that judges. For in the thing itself for which you judge another, you condemn yourself. For you, who judges, do such yourself. 2 But we know that the judgment of God is according to the truth, against those who do such things. 3 And do you somehow think, mister, who judges those who do such things, and you do as much yourself, that you will escape the judgment of God? 4 Or do you spite the riches of his goodness, and lenience, and patience, and not know that the goodness of God invites you to have an honest change of heart? 5 But according to your stubbornness, and heart which knows no repentance, you gather yourself wrath in the day of wrath, in which the just judgment of God will be revealed, 6 who will give to each and every one according to his deeds: 7 to those indeed, who, persevering in doing good, seek glory and honor and immortality, life eternal; 8 but to those who are contentious, and who indeed to not obey the truth, but obtain unrighteousnesses, will come indignation and wrath, 9 affliction and anxiety, against every human soul perpetrating evil, Jew first, and also Greek. 10 But glory, and honor, and peace to all workers of good, to the Jew first, and also to the Greek. 11 For God does not give preferential treatment to people.

12 For whoever sins without the law, without the law he dies; and whoever sins in the law, by the law he shall be judged. 13 For those who have heard the law are not righteous before God; but those who do according to the law shall have justification. 14 For when the nations, which do not have the law, do by nature that which is the law, not having that law, are a law to themselves, 15 which show the work of the law written on their hearts, their consciences also attesting, and the thoughts among themselves accusing, or otherwise excusing, 16 in that day, when the Lord shall judge the hidden things of people, according to my gospel by Jesus Christ. 17 Behold, you are called a Jew, and rest in the law, and glory in God, 18 and know his will, and prove the more excellent things, instructed from the law, 19 and are confident that you yourself are a guide to the blind, a light to those in the darkness, 20 an instructor of fools, a teacher of infants, having the form of knowledge and truth by the law. 21 However, you who teach, you do not teach yourself; you who preach to not steal, you steal; 22 you who say to not commit adultery, you commit adultery; you who curse idols, commit sacrilege; 23 you who glory in the law, dishonor God by transgression of the law. 24 For the name of God is badly heard among the nations because of you all, as it is written.

25 For circumcision itself has its profit, if you keep the law. But if you shall be a transgressor of the law, your circumcision is turned into uncircumcision. 26 Therefore if uncircumcision shall keep the justifications of the law, will not his uncircumcision be reckoned for circumcision? 27 And the uncircumcision which is of nature shall judge, if it shall keep the law, you who by the letter and circumcision are a transgressor of the law? 28 For the one who may appear to be a Jew is not a Jew, nor is the circumcision which shall appear to be in the flesh a circumcision. 29 But the one who is a Jew secretly is a Jew; and the circumcision of the heart is circumcision, which stands with the spirit, not the letter; whose praise is not from people, but from God.


Then, what advantage is there for the Jew, or what purpose is circumcision? 2 Much in every way; first of all, because to them the oracles of God were committed. 3 For what if some of them were unbelieving? Would their unbelief deaden the faith of God? 4 Never; rather, may God be true, but every person a liar. As it is written:
That you may be justified in your words,
and overcome when you are judged.
5 But if our unrighteousness were to commend the righteousness of God, what shall we say? Is God then unjust, who takes vengeance? (I speak in the manner of a human) 6 Never; how then would God judge the world? 7 But then if the truth of God were to excel in his glory through my lies, why am I still judged like a sinner? 8 But not the more (as is evilly spoken of us, and as some confirm us to say), “let us do evil, that good may come” (whose condemnation is just)?

9 What then? Are we better than they are? Not at all; for before we have shown proof that both Jews and Greeks are all under the bondage of sin, as it is written:

10 There is no righteous person, not even one;
11 there is none who understands, there is none who seeks God.
12 All have turned aside, together become worthless;
there is not one who does good, not a single one.

13 Their throat is an open tomb,
their tongues are used for deceit;
the venom of asps is under their lips,

14 whose mouth is full of cursing and bitterness.
15 Quick are their feet to spill blood;
16 sorrow and calamity are in their ways,
17 and the way of peace they have not known;
18 the fear of God is not before their eyes.
19 But we know that whatever the law says, it says to those under the law, that every mouth may be blocked, and all the world be subject to God; 20 therefore, from the works of the law, all flesh shall not be justified in his sight; for through the law is the knowing of sin.

21 But now without the law the righteousness of God is revealed, being proven by the witness of the law and prophets. 22 But the righteousness of God by the faith of Jesus Christ is in all and upon all those who believe in him. 23 For there is no distinction—all have been sinful, and are deprived of the glory of God; 24 but they are justified by his grace, by the redemption which is in Christ Jesus, 25 whom God set forth as a reconciliator, his own blood intervening by faith, to show his righteousness because of the remission of prior sins, 26 which God tolerated, to show his righteousness in the present time, such that he himself might be just, and justifying the one who is of the faith of Jesus Christ.

27 Therefore, where is glorying? It is excluded. By what law? Works? No; rather, by the law of faith. 28 We conclude, therefore, a person to be deemed righteous by faith, without the works of the law. 29 Is he the God of Jews alone, and not of the nations? Certainly the nations as well; 30 so much as God is one who justifies both circumcision from faith, and uncircumcision by faith. 31 Then is the law made void of effect by faith? Never; rather, we establish the law the more firmly.


So what do we say Abraham, our father according to the flesh, found? 2 For if Abraham was deemed righteous through his deeds, he had glory, but not toward God. 3 For what does the scripture say? Abraham believed God, and it was counted to him as righteousness. 4 But to the one who works deeds, reward is not counted according to grace, but according to debt. 5 But to the one who does not work, but believes in the one who makes the wicked righteous, his faith is counted toward righteousness 6 As also David says the blessedness of the person to whom God has counted righteousness without the works,
7 Blessed are those whose iniquities are forgiven,
whose sins are covered.

8 Blessed is the man
to whom God has not counted sin.

9 So therefore does the blessedness abide upon the circumcision alone, or also in the uncircumcision? (For we say that the faith of Abraham was counted as righteousness.) 10 Then how was it counted? On the circumcision, or on the lack of circumcision? Not on the circumcision, but on the lack of circumcision. 11 And he received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of the faith which is in the uncircumcision, that he might be the father of all who believe through their uncircumcision, that it may be counted as righteousness to them, 12 and that he might be the father of the circumcision, and not only of those who are from the circumcision, but to those who follow the steps of the faith which is in the uncircumcision of our father Abraham. 13 For not by the law was the promise to Abraham or his seed, that they should become heirs of the world, but by the righteousness of faith. 14 For if those who are from the law become heirs, the faith is drained of its worth, the promise is done away with. 15 For the law works wrath; for where there is no law, there is no prevarication. 16 Therefore it is of faith—that according to grace the promise may be firm to all the seed, not merely those who are from the law, but also to that which is from the faith of Abraham, who is the father of all of us, 17 as it is written, As a father of many nations I have placed you; before God whom he believed, who livens the dead, and calls those things which are not the same as those which are; 18 who believed in hope, against hope, that he might be made the father of many nations according to that which was said to him, So shall your seed be. 19 And he was not weak in faith, nor did he consider his body effectively dead, being yet one hundred years in age; nor the dead womb of Sarah. 20 He did not hesitate, distrustingly, at the promise of God either, but was made strong in faith, giving glory to God, 21 knowing most fully that whatever he had promised, he is able to do. 22 And that is why it was counted as righteousness to him.

23 But it was not written solely for him that it was counted to him as righteousness, 24 but also because of us, to whom it shall be counted—who believe in the one who raised our Lord Jesus Christ from the dead, 25 who was handed over for our offenses, and rose again for our justification.


Justified, therefore, from faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ, 2 through whom also we have access by faith into this grace in which we stand; and we glory in the hope of the glory of God. 3 And not only that; but we glory also in our sufferings, knowing that the suffering works forth patience, 4 and patience trial, and trial hope; 5 and hope does not shame, because the love of God was shed here and there in our hearts by the holy spirit which is given to us.

6 For why was it that Christ, weak as we still were, died for the ungodly according to the time? 7 For not very likely would one die for a righteous man; though perhaps for a good man one might dare to die. 8 But God commends his love in us, because when we were still sinners, Christ died for us according to the time; 9 now much greater justified in his blood, therefore, we will be saved from the wrath by him.

10 For if when we were enemies we were reconciled to God by the death of his own son, so much more the greater reconciled, we shall be saved in his life. 11 And not only that, but also we glory in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom we now receive reconciliation. 12 Therefore, as if by one person, sin entered into this world, and through sin death, and thus death passed forth onto all mankind, in that all have sinned. 13 For until there was the law, there was sin in the world, but sin is not counted when there is no law. 14 But death reigned from Adam to Moses also over those who had not sinned in the transgression of Adam, who is a figure of the coming one.

15 But the gift is not as the offense. For if through the offense of one many died, much greater is the grace of God; and the gift in the grace of one person, Jesus Christ, has abounded in many. 16 And the gift is not thus, as if it were by one sin. For the judgment itself was by one, into condemnation, but the grace, of many offenses, toward justification. 17 For if by the offense of one death reigned through one, much greater is the abundance of grace, and the giving, and the receivers of righteousness will reign in life through the one, Jesus Christ. 18 Therefore, condemnation was upon all people as through the offense of one; but thus by one righteousness is in all people, into the justification of life. 19 For as through the disobedience of one person, many were made sinners, so also by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous. 20 But the law entered so that offense might abound. And where offense abounded, grace abounded the more, 21 that, as sin reigned into death, so also grace might reign through righteousness in eternal life, through Jesus Christ our Lord.


What, therefore, do we say? Shall we remain in sin so that grace will abound? 2 Never! For how shall we, who are dead to sin, still live in it? 3 Or do you not know that all of us who are baptized into Christ Jesus are baptized into his death? 4 For by baptism we are buried together with him into death, that how Christ rose from the dead by the glory of the Father, so also we ought to walk in the newness of life. 5 For if we are made to be planted together in the likeness of his death, likewise we will be also in that of his resurrection, 6 knowing this, that our old person is likewise hung on the cross to destroy the body of sin; and beyond this we ought to serve sin no more. 7 For the one who is dead, is justified from sin. 8 But if we are dead with Christ, we believe that we likewise live with Christ, 9 knowing that Christ rising again from the dead will not die again; no further will death rule him. 10 For the one who is dead is dead in sin; he had his death. But the one who lives lives in God. 11 So also deem yourselves to be dead indeed to sin, but living in God, in Christ Jesus our Lord.

12 Therefore, may sin no more reign in your mortal bodies so that you obey its lusts. 13 But neither should you show your parts as weapons of iniquity in sin, but show yourselves to God as living out of death; and your parts, weapons of righteousness in God. 14 For sin shall not rule you; for you are no longer under the law, but under grace. 15 So what, then? Shall we sin, because we are not under the law, but under grace? Never! 16 Do you not know that you are servants to whomever you show yourselves as obedient servants, whether that obedience be to deathly sin, or to righteousness? 17 But thanks to God that, though you were servants of sin, you yet have obeyed from the heart to that form of teaching into which you were carried, 18 and, freed from sin, you were made servants of righteousness. 19 As a person I speak, because of the weakness of your flesh. For just as you have shown your parts to serve uncleanness, and iniquity to iniquity, now you show your parts to serve righteousness toward being made holy. 20 For when you were servants of sin, you were free from righteousness. 21 So then what fruit did you have in that, that you are now ashamed of? (For their end is death.) 22 But now, being freed from sin, and made servants to God, you have your fruit toward becoming holy, the end of which is eternal life. 23 For the payment for sin is death, 24 but the grace of God is eternal life, in Christ Jesus our Lord.


Or do you not know, brothers (for I speak to those who know the law), that the law dominates in a person so long as he lives? 2 For the woman who is under a husband, is bound to him by the law, while the husband is living; but if her husband is dead, she is released from the law of the husband. 3 Therefore, as the man is still living, if she shall be with another man, she shall be called an adulteress; but if her man shall be dead, she is freed from the law of the man, such that if she shall be with another man, she will not be an adulteress. 4 Therefore, my brothers, you too are made dead to the law through the body of Christ, so that you may belong to another, one who rose from the dead, so that we may bear fruit to God. 5 For when we were in the flesh, the passions of sinners, which were through the law, worked in our parts, so that they would bear the fruit of death. 6 But now, we are released from the law of death in which we were held captive, that now instead we might serve the spirit in newness, not the oldness of letters.

7 So then what do we say? Is the law sin? Never! But I did not know sin, save through the law; for I did not know coveting, except that the law said, Do not covet. 8 But seizing the opportunity by the commandment, sin worked in me every kind of covetousness. For without the law, sin was dead. 9 And once, I had been living without law; but when the commandment had come, sin revived. 10 And I became dead, and the commandment that was life to me was as good as death. 11 For, seizing opportunity through the commandment, sin deceived me, and through it, it killed me. 12 Therefore the law itself is holy, and the commandment holy and righteous and good.

13 Then was that which is good made death to me? Never. But sin, so as to appear as sin, through good worked death to me, such that above the measure, the sin might be made more sinful by the commandment. 14 For we know that the law is spiritual, but I am fleshly, sold off under sin. 15 For what I produce, I do not understand; for I do not do the good thing that I want to do, but I do the bad thing that I hate. 16 But if what I do is not what I want to do, I consent to the law, that it is good. 17 But now, it is no longer I who do it, but the sin that dwells in me. 18 For I know that good does not dwell in me (by which I mean in my flesh). For to want to do is present with me; but how to do that good thing, I do not find. 19 For I do not do that good thing which I want to do; but the bad thing which I do not want to do, I do. 20 For if I do that thing which I do not want to do, it is no longer I who work it, but that sin which dwells in me. 21 Then I find the law, that when I am wanting to go good, evil is with me. 22 (For I have love for the law of God, according to the person inside of me.) 23 But in my parts I see a different law, waging war against the law of my mind, and holding me captive in the law of sin which is in my parts. 24 Who will free me, unhappy person that I am, from this body of death? 25 But thanks to God, through our Lord Jesus Christ. Therefore I keep the law of God with my own mind, though my flesh keeps the law of sin.


Therefore, there is now no condemnation to those who are in Christ Jesus, who walk not according to flesh. 2 For the law of the spirit of life in Christ Jesus freed me from the law of sin and death. 3 For what was not possible for the law, in that it was made weak by the flesh, God, sending his son in the likeness of the flesh of sin, and the likeness of sin, condemned sin in the flesh, 4 so that the justification of the law might be fulfilled in us, we who walk not according to the flesh, but according to the spirit. 5 For those who are according to the flesh know those things which are of the flesh; but those who are of the spirit feel those things which are of the spirit. 6 For the wisdom of the flesh is death, but the wisdom of the spirit life and peace; 7 because the wisdom of the flesh is at enmity with God. For the law of God is not subject, nor can it be. 8 And those who are in the flesh are not capable of pleasing God. 9 But you are not in the flesh, but in the spirit, so long as the spirit of God dwells in you. But if anyone does not have the spirit of Christ, he is not his. 10 And if Christ is in you, the body is in truth dead because of sin, but the spirit, because of righteousness, lives. 11 But if the spirit of the one who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you, the one who raised Jesus Christ from the dead makes even your mortal bodies alive because of the in-dwelling of his spirit in you.

12 Therefore, brothers, we are debtors, but not to the flesh, such that we would be living according to the flesh. 13 For if you continue to live according to the flesh, you will very much die; but if in the spirit you cause the doings of the flesh to die, you will live. 14 For all who are led by the spirit of God are the sons of God. 15 For you did not receive the spirit of slavery again in fear, but you have received the spirit of adoption as sons, in which we proclaim, Abba—Father! 16 For the spirit itself bears witness to our own spirits, that we are sons of God. 17 And if sons, then heirs, heirs indeed of God, and fellow-heirs with Christ, if we shall suffer with him, that we may also be glorified with him.

18 For I figure that the sufferings of this time are not worthy of the glory to come, which is yet to be revealed in us. 19 For the awaiting of creation awaits the revelation of the sons of God. 20 For creation was subjected to vanity not willingly, but because of the one who subjected it in hope 21 that creation itself also may be freed from the slavery of corruption into the freedom of the glory of sons of God. 22 For we know that all creation until now is groaning in pain and birth pangs. 23 And not that alone; but we ourselves, having the first fruits of the spirit; and among ourselves, we groan in pain, awaiting our adoption as sons of God, the redemption of our body. 24 For hope has kept us safe. And hope that is seen is not hope; for who hopes for something that he has seen? 25 But if we hope for what we do not see, by patience we await it.

26 And likewise also the spirit aids our weakness. For we do not know how to pray the way we should; but the spirit itself pleads for us with indescribable cries of pain. 27 And the one who deeply searches the hearts knows what the spirit desires, for it pleads on behalf of the holy ones, according to God.

28 And we know that to those who love God all things work together into a good thing, to those who are called to be holy according to the purpose. 29 For those which he foreknew, he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his son, such that he may himself be the first-begotten among many brothers. 30 And those whom he predestined, he also called; and those whom he called, he also justified; and those whom he justified, he also glorified.

31 So then what shall we say to these things? If God is on our side, who can stand against us? 32 The one who did not even spare his own son, but handed him over for all of us, how shall he not also, with him, give us all things? 33 Who shall make accusation against those whom God has chosen? 34 It is God who justifies, and who can condemn? It is Christ Jesus who died, or rather, who has risen again, who is at the right-hand side of God, who also pleads for us. 35 Therefore, who or what will separate us from the love of Christ? Suffering? Distress? Hunger? Nakedness? Danger? Harassment? A sword? 36 (As it is written:

Because of you we are made to die all the day;
we are reckoned as sheep for slaughter.
37 But in all these things we conquer, because of the one who has loved us. 38 For I am certain that neither death nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor powers, nor might, nor the now, nor the future, 39 nor height, nor depth, nor any other living thing has the ability to separate us from the love of God which is in Christ Jesus our Lord.


I say the truth in Christ, I do not lie, my conscience bearing witness with me in the holy spirit, 2 that my sorrow is great, and unceasing the pain of my heart. 3 For I would wish myself accursed from Christ for my brothers, who are known by my name according to the flesh, 4 who are Israelites, to whom is the adoption as sons, and the glory, and the testament, and the giving of law, and the service, and the promise; 5 to whom are the fathers, and from whom, according to the flesh, is Christ, who is God over all things, blessed to the age, Amen.

6 But it is not that the word of God has perished. For not all those who are from Israel are Israelites, 7 nor are all those who are the seed of Abraham his sons, But in Isaac shall your seed be called8 that is to say, not all who are sons of the flesh are sons of God, but those who are sons of the promise are deemed as seed. 9 For the word of promise is this: According to this time I shall come, and there will be a son to Sarah. 10 And not only her; but also when Rebecca had once conceived, from Isaac our father. 11 For when they had not yet been born, nor done anything good or bad—so that according to the choosing, the purpose of God might abide—not from works, but from the caller, 12 it was said that the greater would serve the lesser (that is to say, that the older would serve the younger), 13 as it is written, Jacob I have had love for, but for Esau I have had hatred.

14 What then shall we say? Is there iniquity with God, then? Never. 15 For Moses said, I will be merciful to whoever I will be merciful to, and I will show compassion to whoever I will show compassion to. 16 Therefore it is not the one who is willing, nor the one who is running; but of God, who shows mercy. 17 For the scripture says of Pharaoh, In this matter itself have I raised you up, so as to show my power in you; and so that my name may be proclaimed throughout all the land. 18 Therefore he has mercy on those he chooses to; and hardens those he chooses to.

19 But one of you might say to me, “Why does he still find fault, as who can resist his will?” 20 Mister, who are you to so answer against God? Shall the object molded from clay say to the one who molded it, “Why did you make me like this?” 21 Or does he not have the power over that same piece of clay to make one jar for honor, and one for dishonor? 22 If God so wanted to show how angry he was, and make it known how powerful he was, that he put up patiently with jars of wrath, meant for destruction, 23 so as to show off the riches of his glory upon the jars of mercy which he has prepared in glory...why not? 24 Even those of us whom he has called, not only from the Jews, but also among the nations, 25 as he said in Hosea,

I shall call those who were Not My People, My People;
and those who were Not Loved, Loved.

26 And it shall be,
in the place where it was said, “You are not my people,”
there they shall be called sons of the living God.

27 Furthermore Isaiah proclaimed for Israel,

If the number of the sons of Israel
shall be as many as the sand of the sea,
a remnant will be kept safe.

28 For he will complete his word,
and make it short in equity;
for a shortened word
shall God make upon the earth.

29 And as Isaiah said before,

Unless the Lord of Troops had left a seed to us,
we would have become like Sodom,
we would be like Gomorrah.

30 What shall we say then? That the nations, who were not followers of righteousness, grasped righteousness. And it is the righteousness which is from faith. 31 But Israel, following the law of righteousness, did not arrive at the law of righteousness. 32 Why not? Because it was not through faith, as it were, but through works. For they stumbled upon the stone of stumbling, 33 as it is written,

Behold, I place in Zion a stone of stumbling,
a rock of offense;
and whoever believes in him
will not be put to shame.


Brothers, so leans the will of my heart, and my prayer to God is that they may be saved. 2 For I bear witness that they do have a zeal of God, but not according to knowledge, 3 for, being unknowing of the righteousness of God, and wishing to set up a righteousness of their own, they have not subjected themselves to the righteousness of God. 4 For the end result of the law is Christ, to the righteousness of all believers. 5 For Moses wrote that righteousness which is from the law, if one shall do it, he will live in it. 6 But that righteousness which is from faith says this—Do not say in your heart, “Who shall arise to heaven?”—that is, to bring Christ down— 7 or, “Who shall descend into the abyss?”—that is, to call Christ back from the dead. 8 But what is written? The word is near, in your very mouth, and in your heart. This is the word of faith, which we proclaim. 9 For if in your mouth you confess Jesus as Lord, and in your heart you believe that God has raised him from the dead, you will be kept safe. 10 For the heart believes to righteousness, and the mouth makes confession to salvation. 11 For it is written, Everyone who believes in him shall not be put to shame. 12 For there is no distinction between the Jews and the Greeks; for the same Lord of all is rich to all people who call upon him. 13 For Everyone who calls upon the name of the Lord will be kept safe.

14 Then how will they call upon one in whom they have not believed? Or how will they believe in the one of whom they have not heard? Or how will they hear without one proclaiming? 15 But how will they proclaim without having been sent? As it is written:

How beautiful are the feet of the bringers of the good news of peace,
the bringers of the good news of good things!

16 But not all believe in the good news, as Isaiah said: Lord, who has believed our report? 17 Therefore faith is from hearing, and hearing through the word of Christ. 18 But I say, Have they not heard? And indeed their sound has gone out into all the land, and to the very ends of the earth their words. 19 But I say, Did Israel not know? First, Moses says:

I will lead you to jealousy by a non-nation;
by a nation of fools will I make you rage.

20 And Isaiah has the boldness to say,

I was found by those who were not looking for me;
I appeared openly to those who did not ask for me.
21 And to Israel he says, All the day I have held forth my hands to a disbelieving, backtalking people.


So I ask, Has God cast his people aside? Never! For I too am an Israelite; from the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. 2 God has not cast aside his people, whom he foreknew. Or do you not know what is written about Elijah, how he pleaded with God against Israel? 3 God, they are killing your prophets, and dug your altars apart, and I am left alone with them seeking my soul. 4 But what did God’s answer say to him? I have left for myself seven thousand males who have not bent the knee before Baal. 5 Therefore in this way also, in this time, there remain some who are made safe according to the choosing of grace. 6 And if grace, no longer from works, for otherwise the grace is no longer grace. 7 Then what? That which Israel seeks, it has not obtained, but the choice has been obtained. 8 But the others were hardened, as it is written,
God gave them a spirit of imperception,
eyes so as not to see,
ears so as not to hear,
until this very day.
9 And David said:
May their table be made a snare, a trap,
an offense, and a payback for them.
10 May their eyes be darkened,
so that they may not see;
and their back ever hunched over.

11 So I ask, Have they thus stumbled so as to fall? Never! But by their stumbling salvation is brought to the nations, so that they may become jealous, 12 that if their stumbling is the riches of the world, and their loss the riches of the nations, how much more is their fulness? 13 For to you, the nations, I speak: so much as I am an apostle to the nations, I honor my ministry; 14 if somehow I might provoke my own flesh to jealousy, and save some of them. 15 For if their being cast aside is the reconciliation of the world, what is taking them back, if not life from death? 16 For if the firstfruit is holy, so is the lump; and if the root is holy, so is the branch. 17 For if any of the branches are broken off, you (I speak personally), feral olive tree that you are, were grafted onto them, and have become partaker with them of the root and of the fatness of the olive tree— 18 do not boast against the branches. For if you boast, keep in mind that it is not you who hold up the root, but the root holds you up. 19 So you will say, “The branches were broken off so that I could be grafted on.” 20 All well and good; they were broken off because of their unbelief, but you stand firm in your faith. Do not be high of mind, but fear. 21 For if God did not even save the natural branches, neither will he spare you. 22 Therefore look upon the goodness and strictness of God; upon those who fell, strictness, but upon you the goodness of God, if you shall keep yourself in goodness; otherwise, you too will be cut off. 23 But also those, if they do not remain in unbelief, will be grafted on; for God is able to graft them back on. 24 For if you who were cut out from what is naturally a feral olive tree, and against nature were grafted onto a good olive tree, how much greater are those who, being by nature from a domesticated olive tree, are grafted on!

25 For I do not want you to be unaware, brothers, of this mystery, such that you not be knowledgeable only in yourselves, that a partial blindness has fallen upon Israel, until the fulness of the nations shall come in, 26 and thus all of Israel shall be made safe, as it is written,

There shall come from Zion one who saves,
and he will turn aside ungodliness from Jacob.

27 And this is the testament from me to them,
when I shall bear their sins away from them.
28 Indeed according to the good news, they are enemies because of you; but according to the choosing, they are beloved because of the fathers. 29 For the gift and calling of God are without his repentance. 30 For so much as you too once were unbelievers of God, now also you have obtained mercy because of their unbelief, 31 so also now these who did not believe, in your mercy so that they might obtain mercy themselves. 32 For God closed away all things in unbelief, that he might be merciful to all people.
33 Ah, the heights of the riches
of the wisdom and knowledge of God!
How incomprehensible are his judgments,
and unsearchable his ways!
34 For who has known the thoughts of the Lord? Or who has been his counselor? 35 Or who has first given to him, and it will be given back to him? 36 For from him, and through him, and in him are all things, to whom be glory to the age. Amen.


Therefore I ask you, brothers, by the mercy of God, so that you may present your bodies for a living sacrifice, holy, pleasing to God—your reasonable service. 2 And do not conform yourselves to this age, but reform yourselves in the newness of your mind, so that you may prove that which may be the good, well-pleasing, and perfect will of God. 3 For I say, through the grace which is given to me, to all who are among you, to think no more of himself than he should, but to think with sobriety; and each one as God has divided the measure of faith. 4 For as in one body we have many parts, and not every part has the same position, 5 so also we, though many, are one single body in Christ, and each one a part of one another, 6 and having different gifts according to the grace which is given to us, according to the proportion of faith, whether prophecy, 7 whether ministry, to ministering; whoever teaches, to teaching; 8 whoever exhorts, to exhorting; whoever gives, to simplicity; whoever rules, with diligence; whoever has mercy, with cheerfulness; 9 love without phoniness, hating evil and clinging to good; 10 loving each other with brotherly love, preferring each other with honor; 11 in diligence not slothful; in spirit fervent, serving the Lord; 12 rejoicing in the hope, remaining patient in suffering, steadfast in prayer; 13 distributing to the needs of the holy, given to hospitality.

14 Bless those who harass you. Bless them, do not curse them. 15 Rejoice with those who rejoice, weep with those who weep. 16 Be of one mind toward each other, not thinking too highly of yourselves, but on the same level as the humble. Do not be wise according to your own conception of wisdom. 17 Repay no one evil for evil; provide good things, not only before God, but also before all people. 18 If you can, with all people have peace, so much as is in you; 19 do not be avengers of yourselves, my beloved, but give a place for wrath, for it is written, Mine is the vindication; I will make retribution, says the Lord. 20 But if your enemy is hungry, feed him; if thirsty, give him something to drink. For in doing this, you will pile coals of fire upon his head. 21 Do not be conquered by evil, but conquer evil with good.


Every soul should be subject to the loftier powers. For there is no power except from God, and those which are, are set in place by God. 2 Therefore the one who resists the powers resists the order which God has put in place, and the one who resists acquires condemnation to himself. 3 For rulers are not a terror to good work, but evil. Do you want to not fear the power? Do the good thing, and you will have praise from it. For he is the minister of God to you for good. 4 But if you do evil, be afraid. For not without reason does he bear the sword. For he is the minister of God; a wrathful vindicator to the one who does evil. 5 Therefore you must be subject, not only because of the wrath, but also because of conscience. 6 For this is why you pay taxes; for they are the ministers of God, serving for this purpose. 7 Therefore give them all that is due them; to whom tax, tax; to whom duty, duty; to whom fear, fear; to whom honor, honor.

8 Owe nothing to anyone, but that you love one another. For whoever loves his neighbor fulfills the law. 9 For Do not commit adultery, do not commit theft, do not speak false witness, do not covet, and any other commandment if there is any, is included in this word, Love your neighbor as yourself. 10 Love does not work evil to a neighbor; therefore love is the fulness of the law.

11 Furthermore—be knowing the time, that now is the hour to rise from sleep. For now our salvation is closer than when we began to believe. 12 The night is ending, and day is approaching. Therefore we ought to cast away the works of the darkness, and don the weaponry of the light. 13 We should walk honestly, as in the daylight; not in partying or drunkenness, nor in beds, nor in shamelessness, nor in strive, nor jealousy; 14 but don the Lord Jesus Christ, and make no provision for the lusts of the flesh.


The one who is weak in faith, take in, but not in disputes over minor matters. 2 For one person may believe to eat all things, and another who is weak eats only vegetables. 3 The one who does eat should not spurn the one who does not, nor the one who does not judge the one who does, for God has taken him in. 4 Who are you to judge another servant? He stands or falls to his own lord. But he stands, for God is able to make him stand.

5 And one will deem one day over another, while another will deem every day the same; each should satisfy his own mind. 6 The one who regards a day regards it to the Lord, and the one who eats, eats to the Lord, for he gives thanks to God. And the one who does not eat, does not eat to the Lord, and gives thanks to God. 7 For none of us lives to himself, and none dies to himself; 8 if we live, to the Lord we live, and if we die, to the Lord we die. Therefore, whether we live or whether we die, we are the Lord’s. 9 For to this end Christ died and rose again, so as to gain lordship over even the dead and the living. 10 And who are you to judge your own brother? Or why do you reject your own brother? For we will all stand before the judgment seat of Christ. 11 For it is written,

Upon my life,
says the Lord,
every knee shall bow to me,
and every tongue will confess to God.
12 Therefore each and every one of us shall give account for our own selves to God. 13 So we should no longer judge each other, but more importantly, you should judge this thing: do not place an object of stumbling, or an offense, before your brother. 14 I know, and I have faith in the Lord Jesus, that there is nothing unclean on its own, but to the one who deems that it is unclean, it is unclean. 15 For if because of food your brother is sorrowed, you are no longer walking according to love. Do not perish him, for whom Christ died, with your food. 16 May not your good things be spoken ill of. 17 For the kingdom of God is not food and drink, but righteousness and peace, and joy in the holy spirit. 18 For the one who serves Christ in this matter pleases God, and is approved by the people.

19 Therefore, we ought to follow those things which are of peace; and those things which are of building up, we should keep one to another. 20 Do not destroy the work of God because of food. For all things are clean. But it is evil for the man who eats so as to cause stumbling. 21 It is better to not eat meat, and not drink wine, nor do anything in which your brother will stumble, or be offended, or become weak. 22 Do you have faith? Have it to yourself before God. Blessed is the one who does not judge himself in that which he approves. 23 But the one who doubts is condemned if he does eat, for he does not do it out of faith. And everything which is not out of faith is sin.


But we, the stronger ones, must sustain the infirmities of the weaker ones, and not please our own selves. 2 Each of you should please your neighbor in good things, to building up. 3 For also Christ did not believe himself, as it is written, The reproaches of your reproachers fell upon me. 4 For whatever things have been written are written to teach us, so that through the patience and consolation of the writings we might have hope. 5 And may the God of patience and solace grant that you be of one mind to one another, according to Christ Jesus, 6 that being one in mind and one in mouth you may glorify the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. 7 Therefore receive each other, as Christ has received you, to the glory of God. 8 For I say that Christ Jesus was a minister of the circumcision because of the truth of God, to the confirming of the promises to the fathers; 9 and that the nations might glory God upon his mercy, as it is written,
Therefore will I praise you among the nations, Lord,
and to your name will I sing.
10 And again he says:
Praise him, you nations,
with his people.
11 And again:
Praise the Lord, all nations;
and exalt him, all peoples.
12 And once more Isaiah says:
There will be a root to Jesse,
and the one who will rise up to rule the nations,
in him the nations will hope.

13 And may the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing, that you may abound in the hope and power of the holy spirit. 14 For I, I myself, am sure, my brothers, that you yourselves are full of love, filled with all knowledge, such that you may able to admonish one another. 15 And boldly I have written to you somewhat, as bringing you back into remembrance, because of the grace which is given me by God, 16 that I might be the minister of Christ Jesus among the nations, making holy the gospel of God, 17 that the offering of the nations may be acceptable and holy in the holy spirit. Therefore I have glory in Christ Jesus toward God.

18 For I dare not speak of any of those things which through me do not effect Christ into the faith of the nations, in word and deed, 19 in the power of signs and wonders, in the power of the holy spirit, so that I have replenished the gospel of Christ by circling around from Jerusalem to Illyricum. 20 And thus have I proclaimed this gospel, where Christ was not named, lest I build up upon the foundation of another, 21 but as it it written,

Those to whom proclamation was not made of him shall see;
and those who have not heard will understand.
22 This is why I was often held back from coming to you.

23 But now having no other place in these parts, and having the desire to come to you for all these many years, 24 when I shall travel toward Spain I hope to see you on the way, and to be led there by you, if first I shall have enjoyed your company somewhat. 25 But now I am traveling to Jerusalem to minister to the holy. 26 For Macedonia and Achaia are pleased to make a contribution for the poor among the holy people who are in Jerusalem. 27 For it has pleased them, and they are debtors to them. For also if the nations are made partakers of their spiritual things, they also owe it to them to minister to them in fleshly matters. 28 Therefore, when I shall have finished this, and have sealed over this fruit, by you I shall travel onward to Spain. 29 And I know that when I come to you, I will come in the abundance of the blessing of the gospel of Christ. 30 Therefore I beseech you, brothers, by our Lord Jesus Christ, and by the love of the holy spirit, that you assist me in your prayers for me to God. 31 that I may be freed from the infidels who are in Judaea, and that the offering of my service may be received among the holy people in Jerusalem, 32 that I may come to you in joy by the will of God, and be refreshed with you. 33 And may the God of peace be with all of you. Amen.


And I commend to you our sister Phoebe, who is a servant of the community which is in Cenchrea, 2 that you receive her in the Lord, worthy and holy, and help her in whatever business she may have need of you for. For also she herself has been a help to many, including myself. 3 Greet Prisca and Aquila, my helpers in Christ Jesus, who for my life have put their very necks on the line, 4 whom not only I give thanks, but also all the communities of the nations; 5 and the community in their house. Greet Epaenetus, my beloved, who is the firstfruits of Asia in Christ. 6 Greet Mary, who has toiled much among you. 7 Greet Andronicus and Junia, my relatives and fellow-captives, who are notable among the apostles who have been before me in Christ. 8 Greet Ampliatus, my most beloved in the Lord. 9 Greet Urbanus, my helper in Christ Jesus, and Stachys my beloved. 10 Greet Apelles, approved in Christ. Greet those who are of the house of Aristobulus. 11 Greet Herodion my relative. Greet those who are of the house of Narcissus, who are in the Lord. 12 Greet Tryphaena and Tryphosa, who toil in the Lord. Greet Persis, my most beloved, who has done much work in the Lord. 13 Greet Rufus, chosen in the Lord, and his and my mother. 14 Greet Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermas, Patrobas, Hermes, and the brothers who are with them. 15 Greet Philologus and Julia, Nereum and his sister, and Olympias, and all the holy people who are with them. 16 Greet each other with the holy kiss. All the communities of Christ greet you.

17 And I ask, brothers, that you watch those who make dissensions and stumbling blocks, contrary to the doctrine which you have learned; and avoid them. 18 For such as them do not serve Christ our Lord, but their own guts; and by sweet words and blessings they deceive the hearts of the innocent. 19 For your obedience in every place is published abroad. I therefore rejoice in you. But I want you to be wise in good things, and simple in evil. 20 And the God of peace shall soon crush Satan under your feet swiftly. May the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you.

21 Timothy, my helper, and Lucius, and Jason, and Sosipater my relative greet you. 22 I, Tertius, who have written this letter, greet you in the Lord. 23 Gaius, my host, and the host of the whole community, greets you. Erastus, the treasurer of the city, greets you, and his brother Quartus. 24 May the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with all of you. Amen.

25 And to the one who is able to establish you, according to my gospel and the proclamation of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery kept silent for times eternal, 26 which now is revealed by the writings of the prophets according to the eternal commandment of God, to the obedience of faith, known among all the nations, 27 to God the only wise, through Jesus Christ, be glory for an age of ages. Amen.

To the Romans. Written from Corinth by Phoebe, the minister of the community in Cenchrea.